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What is Malware, Ransomware, Phishing, Adware and more

Characteristics and Definition

Adware(advertising-supported software):
Adware is software package that automatically uses some form of advertising delivery system in order to generate revenue for its author. Ad delivery systems are most often integrated into free applications as a way for developers to recover costs or generate revenue.

Anti-spyware programs:
Many programmers and some commercial firms have released products dedicated to remove or block spyware. Major anti-virus firms such as Symantec, PC Tools, McAfee and Sophos have also added anti-spyware features to their existing anti-virus products.

Antivirus software:
Antivirus or anti-virus software (often abbreviated as AV), sometimes known as anti-malware software, is computer software used to prevent, detect and remove malicious software.

Drive-by download:
This is probably the most popular way to get something nasty into your computer. Most of the time, it comes from visiting a bad web page. That web page exploits a weakness in your browser and causes your system to become infected.

Firewall (computing):
In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.

Malware:
The word malware is a combination of two words “malicious” and “software”.  Is a general term used to refer to a variety of forms of hostile, intrusive, or annoying software. All of the hostile and intrusive program codes. Malware includes computer viruses, worms, trojan horses, worms, spyware, adware, most rootkits, and other malicious programs. Along with viruses, are some of the biggest threats to computer users on the Internet today. It can hijack your browser, redirect your search attempts, serve up nasty pop-up ads, track what web sites you visit. Essentially, it is the broadest term to cover all forms of infections.

Pharming:
Pharming is a hacker's attack intended to redirect a website's traffic to another, bogus site.

Phishing:
Phishing is attempting to acquire information (and sometimes, indirectly, money) such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

Ransomware:
Lately a very popular way for Internet criminals to make money. This malware alters your system in such a way that you’re unable to get into it normally. It will then display some kind of screen that demands some form of payment to have the computer unlocked. Access to your computer is literally ransomed by the cyber-criminal.

Scareware:
Software that appears to be something legit (usually masquerading as some tool to help fix your computer) but when it runs it tells you that your system is either infected or broken in some way. This message is generally delivered in a manner that is meant to frighten you into doing something. The software claims to be able to fix your problems if you pay them. Scareware is also referred to as “rogue” software – like rogue antivirus.

Rootkit:
A rootkit is a collection of computer software, typically malicious, designed to enable access to a computer or areas of its software that would not otherwise be allowed (for example, to an unauthorized user) and often masks its existence or the existence of other software.

Spam:
Use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages indiscriminately.

Spyware:
Is  a type of malware (malicious software), that monitors your computer to collects information about a person or organization without their knowledge and reveals collected information to an interested party without the consumer's consent. The presence of spyware is typically hidden from the user and can be difficult to detect. Some spyware, such as keyloggers, may be installed by the owner of a shared, corporate, or public computer intentionally to monitor users. Spyware is a type of malware that's hard to detect. It collects information about your surfing habits, browsing history, or personal information (such as credit card numbers), and often uses the Internet to pass this information along to third parties without you knowing. Keyloggers are a type of spyware that monitors your keystrokes.

Trojan horse (computing):
Trojan horse, or Trojan is any malicious computer Software program which is used to hack into a computer, a program you thought was going to be one thing, but turns out to be something bad by misleading users of its true intent.. Named for the fabled “Trojan Horse” that appeared to be a gift but in fact carried a dangerous payload.

Virus:
This is a term that used to be generic. Any bad software used to be a virus; a virus replicates itself: it spreads copies of itself to other computers if it can (self replicating viruses are called worms). We use the word “virus” to describe a program that self-replicates after hooking itself onto something running in Windows. The term “virus” is also commonly but erroneously used to refer to other types of malware, including but not limited to adware and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability.

Web beacon:
A web beacon is an object embedded in a web page or email, which unobtrusively (usually invisibly) allows checking that a user has accessed the content.

Worm:
A worm is another kind of self-replicating program but generally doesn’t hook itself onto a Windows process. Worms generally are little programs that run in the background of your system.

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